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Ecdysterone - VermoHerb 90 tabs. 250 mg
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Finarex Depot (Trenbolone Enanthate) 200mg/ml 10 ampoules Thaiger Pharma
FINEXAL-100 - THAIGER-PHARMA - 10 AMPS x 100mg/1ml
Floyd
Halotestin(Fluoxymesterone)50t/5mg(Hubei Huangshi Nanshang)
Haloxyl /Halotestin 10mg - 50 tabs/ - Kalpa Pharmaceutical
Indujekt-250 10amp/250mg/ml(Testosterone Propionate 30 mg/ml,Testosterone Phenylpropionate 60 mg/ml,Testosterone Isocaproate 60mg/ml,Testosterone Decanoate)10amp/1ml/250mg/ml(Alpha Pharma)
Kynoselen(Magnesium L-bi-aspartate,Potassium DL-aspartate,Selenium)100ml(Vetoquinol France)
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Metanabol-10mg Methandienone 50 tabs - NasPharma
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PHENDUREN-275 - THAIGER-PHARMA - 10 AMPS ( 200mg/ml Nandrolone Decanoate, 75mg/ml Nandrolone Phenylpropionate)
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Primoplex 100(Axio Labs)
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REMASTRIL100MG, 10 AMPS/1ML, THAIGER-PHARMA DROSTANOLONE PROPIONATE 10ML (100MG / 1ML)
Retabolil(Nandrolone Decanoate) 1 ml/50mg (Gedeon Richter Hungary)
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Testex Elmu Prolongatum (Testosterone cypionate)1ml/250mg(Altana Pharma, S.A. Spain)
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TestoRapid(Testosterone Propionate) 100mg/ml(Alpha Pharma)
Testosteron Depo(Testosterone Enanthate) 10 x 1 ml/250mg (Aburaihan Iran)
Testosteron Depo(Testosterone Enanthate)5 x 1ml/250mg(Galenika Sarbia)
Testosterona-C(Testosterone cypionate)5 x 1ml/200mg(Balkan Pharmaceuticals)
Testosterone Propionate(Testosterone Propionate)5 x 1ml/50mg(Farmak Ukraina)
Testosterone Undecanoate(Testosteron Undecanoate)100t/20mg(Biotech)
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Testаbolon 75(Testosterone Propionate)75mg/ml,10 ml Glass Vials(Optimum Pharma Turkey)
Trenabol (10 ampoules 200 mg) - NasPharma
Trenacet(Trenbolon acetate)100mg/ml,10ml (GEneral European Pharmaceuticals)
Trenanox A(Trenbolone acetate)10ml/750mg(Flor Medico)
Trenanox E(Trenbolone enanthate) 10ml/2000mg(Flor Medico)
Trenaplex A 100(Axio Labs)
Trenbol(Trenbolone acetate)10ml/760mg(Lipthai)
Trenbolin (10 ampoules 100mg) - NasPharma
Trenbolone 100(Trenbolone 6HBC)100mg/ml,10 ml Glass Vials(Optimum Pharma Turkey)
Trenbolone 150(Trenbolone Acetate 50mg/ml, Trenbolone 6HBC 50mg/ml,Trenbolone Enathate 50mg/ml)150mg/ml,10 ml Glass Vials(Optimum Pharma Turkey)
Trenbolone 200(Trenbolone Enathate) 200mg/ml,10 ml Glass Vials Optimum Pharma Turkey)
Trenbolone 75(Trenbolone Acetate)75mg/ml,10 ml Glass Vials(Optimum Pharma Turkey)
Trenbolone Acetate(Trenbolone Acetate)50t/25mg (Biotech)
Trenboxyl Acetate 100 /Trenbolone Acetate/ - Kalpa Pharmaceuiticals
Trenex A100 - Trenbolone Acetate 10ml vial, 100mg/ml (Swiss Pharm)
Trenex E200 - Trenbolone Enanthate 10ml vial, 200mg/ml (Swiss Pharm)
Turanabol(4-Chlorodehydromethyltestosterone) 60t/10mg(Balkan Pharmaceuticals)
Turanaxyl /Turinabol 10mg 100 tabs/ - Kalpha Pharmaceuticals
Turinabol 10(4-chlorodehydromethyltestosterone) 100 tablets/10mg(Optimum Pharma Turkey)
Ultrabol 150(Trenbolone Acetate 50mg/ml, Drostanolone Propionate 50mg/ml,Testosterone Propionate 50mg/ml)150mg/ml,10 ml Glass Vials (Optimum Pharma Turkey)
Ultrabol 175(Trenbolone Acetate 75mg/ml, Drostanolone Propionate 100mg/ml)175mg/ml,10 ml Glass Vials(Optimum Pharma Turkey)
Ultrabol 200(Trenbolone Acetate 100mg/ml, Testosterone Acetate 100mg/ml)200mg/ml,10 ml Glass Vials(Optimum Pharma Turkey)
Ultrabol 225(Trenbolone Acetate 75 mg/ml, Testosterone Acetate 75mg/ml,Methelonone Acetate 75mg/ml)200mg/ml,10 ml Glass Vials (Optimum Pharma Turkey)
Ultrabol 250(Trenbolone Enanthate 125mg/ml, Drostanolone Enanthate 125mg/ml) 200mg/ml,10 ml Glass Vials(Optimum Pharma Turkey)
Ultrabol 275(Optimum Pharma)
Ultrabol 300(Boldenone Undecylenate 100mg/ml, Trenbolone Enanthate 100mg/ml, Testosterone Enanthate 100mg/ml)300mg/ml, 10 ml Glass Vials(Optimum Pharma Turkey)
Undestor Testocaps(Testosterone undecanoate) 30 capsules/40mg(Organon Turkey)
VEBOLDEX 400, 10 AMPS - 1ML, THAIGER PHARMA INGREDIENT: BOLDENONE UNDECYLENATE PACKAGE: 10 AMPS (400MG / AMP)
VEBOLDEX-250, 10 AMPS - 1ML, THAIGER-PHARMA INGREDIENT: BOLDENONE UNDECYLENATE PACKAGE: 10 AMPS (250MG / AMP)
VENAJECT 100, 10 AMPS - 1ML, THAIGER PHARMA INGREDIENT: STANOZOLOL PACKAGE: 10 AMPS (100MG / AMP)
Winstrol TT(Stanozolol)20t/2mg(Zambon Spain)
Winstrol(Stanozolol suspension) 3x1,5ml/50mg (Desma Group Spain)
Winstrol(Stanozolol)20t/2mg(Desma Group Spain)
XANDROL 10 | Oxandrolone 10 MG by Thaiger Pharma Group
XYTHOZEN 50 | Oxymetholone 50 MG by Thaiger Pharma Group.
Рибоксин(Inosine)50tabs/200mg(Киевский Витаминньiй завод Украйна)
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Рибоксин(Inosine)50tabs/200mg(Киевский Витаминньiй завод Украйна)

Item 12757


Metabolically, Inosine is an intermediate in a number of purine nucleotide pathways that affect the ability of the muscle to work efficiently. Some fitness experts claim that inosine can have a positive effect on overall physical strength and energy during exercise.


What Does It Do?
And What Scientific Studies Give Evidence To Support This?

Inosine is the perfect training companion. It is a natural substance that can help increase the body's ability to carry oxygen, without effecting its uptake in the lungs, so it can work harder and stronger.

The Lungs
The lungs of mammals have a spongy texture and are honeycombed with epithelium having a much larger surface area in total than the outer surface area of the lung itself. The lungs of humans are typical of this type of lung.

Breathing is largely driven by the diaphragm below, a muscle that by contracting expands the cavity in which the lung is enclosed. The rib cage itself is also able to expand and contract to some degree.

Inosine is a purine nucleoside which works with Ribose in forming the building blocks of ATP, DNA, and RNA.

What Is ATP?
Otherwise known as Adenosine TriPhosphate, ATP is critical to the release of energy. ATP is an adenosine-derived nucleotide that supplies large amounts of energy to cells for various biochemical processes, including muscle contraction and sugar metabolism, through its hydrolysis to ADP.

When maximum stimulation is reached, inosine is converted into nutrients used by the body. A daily supplement of inositol provides this supplement in purity and potency, and is recommended for daily use


Systematic(IUPAC)name

9-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]-6,9-dihydro-3H-purin-6-one

Clinical data

AHFS/Drugs.com    International Drug Names

Pregnancy cat.  ?

 Legal status OTC

Pharmacokinetic data

Metabolism  Hepatic

Identifiers

CAS number 58-63-9 

ATC code D06BB05 G01AX02

PubChem CID 6021

DrugBank DB04566

ChemSpider 5799 

UNII 5A614L51CT 

KEGG C00294 

ChEBI CHEBI:17596 

Chemical data

Formula C10H12N4O5 

Mol. mass 268.23 g/mol

SMILES eMolecules & PubChem

InChI

InChI=1S/C10H12N4O5/c15-1-4-6(16)7(17)10(19-4)14-3-13-5-8(14)11-2-12-9(5)18/h2-4,6-7,10,15-17H,1H2,(H,11,12,18)/t4-,6-,7-,10-/m1/s1
Key:UGQMRVRMYYASKQ-KQYNXXCUSA-N 

 

Inosine is a nucleoside that is formed when hypoxanthine is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N9-glycosidic bond.

Inosine is commonly found in tRNAs and is essential for proper translation of the genetic code in wobble base pairs.

Knowledge of inosine metabolism has led to advances in immunotherapy in recent decades. Inosine monophosphate is oxidised by the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, yielding xanthosine monophosphate, a key precursor in purine metabolism. Mycophenolate mofetil is an anti-metabolite, anti-proliferative drug that acts as an inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. It is used in the treatment of a variety of autoimmune diseases including Wegener's granulomatosis because the uptake of purine by actively dividing B cells can exceed 8 times that of normal body cells, and, therefore, this set of white cells (which cannot operate purine salvage pathways) is selectively targeted by the purine deficiency resulting from IMD inhibition.

Reactions

Adenine is converted to adenosine or inosine monophosphate (IMP), either of which, in turn, is converted into inosine (I), which pairs with Adenine (A), cytosine (C), and uracil (U).

Purine nucleoside phosphorylase intraconverts inosine and hypoxanthine.

Inosine is also an intermediate in a chain of purine nucleotides reactions required for muscle movements.

Clinical significance

It was tried in the 1970s in Eastern countries for improving athletic performance. Nevertheless, the clinical trials for this purpose showed no improvement.[1] It has been shown that inosine has neuroprotective properties. It has been proposed for spinal cord injury;[2] because it improves axonal rewiring, and for administration after stroke, because observation has shown that axonal re-wiring is encouraged.[3]

It is currently in phase II trials for multiple sclerosis (MS).[4] It produces uric acid after ingestion, which is a natural antioxidant and a peroxynitrite scavenger, which can suggest possible benefit in multiple sclerosis[5] (peroxynitrite has been correlated with the axons degeneration [1]).

It is also in phase II trials for Parkinson's disease. Earlier trials had suggested those with the highest serum urate levels had lower progression of Parkinson's symptoms. The trial uses inosine to raise urate levels in those with levels lower than the population mean (6 mg/dL). [6] [7]

Alseres Pharmaceuticals (named Boston Life Sciences when patent was granted) patented the treatment for stroke [2] and is currently investigating the drug in the MS setting.[8]

In the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, it is classified as an antiviral.[9]

Biotechnology

When designing primers for polymerase chain reaction, inosine is useful in that it will indiscriminately pair with adenine, thymine, or cytosine. This allows for design of primers that span a single-nucleotide polymorphism, without the polymorphism disrupting the primer's annealing efficiency.

Fitness

Despite lack of clinical evidence that it improves muscle development, inosine remains an ingredient in some fitness supplements.

Feeding Stimulant

Inosine has also been found to be an important feed stimulant by itself or in combination with certain amino acids in some species of farmed fish. For example, inosine and inosine-5-monophosphate have been reported as specific feeding stimulants for turbot fry, (Scophthalmus maximus) [10] and yellowtail, (Seriola quinqueradiata).[11] The main problem of using inosine and/or inosine-5-monophosphate as feeding attractants is their high cost. However, their use may be economically justified within larval feeds for marine fish larvae during the early weaning period, since the total quantity of feed consumed is relatively low.

Experimental

NOV-205 manufactured by Novelos Therapeutics is a new class of Antiviral medication that is approved for use in Russia under the tradename of "Molixan" and currently being tested in the USA under FDA clinical studies.
This medication follows the Glutathione pathway via GSSG and, therefore, acts as an immunomodulator, hepatoprotective, and anti-inflammatory.
Under oxidative stress (attack by virus at the cellular level), Oxidized Gluatathione (spent side) appears to modulate inosine, causing knock-out of "viral load."

References

1.       ^ McNaughton L, Dalton B, Tarr J (1999). "Inosine supplementation has no effect on aerobic or anaerobic cycling performance". International journal of sport nutrition 9 (4): 333–44. PMID 10660865.

2.       ^ Liu F, You SW, Yao LP et al. (2006). "Secondary degeneration reduced by inosine after spinal cord injury in rats". Spinal Cord 44 (7): 421–6. doi:10.1038/sj.sc.3101878. PMID 16317421.

3.       ^ Chen P, Goldberg DE, Kolb B, Lanser M, Benowitz LI (2002). "Inosine induces axonal rewiring and improves behavioral outcome after stroke". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (13): 9031–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.132076299. PMC 124418. PMID 12084941.

4.       ^ Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis Using Over the Counter Inosine - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

5.       ^ Uric Acid: Natural Scavenger Of Peroxynitrite

6.       ^ "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". https://foxtrialfinder.michaeljfox.org/trial/468/.

7.       ^ "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00833690.

8.       ^ Alseres pharma drug description

9.       ^ "ATC/DDD Index".

10.   ^ Mackie, A.M. (1987). Identification of the gustatory feeding stimulants. In: Chemoreception in Fishes. (ed. T.J. Hara). Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., Amsterdam, pp. 275-291.

11.   ^ Takeda, M. Takii, K. & Matsui, K. (1984). Identification of feeding stimulants for juvenile eel. Bull. Jap. Soc. Scient. Fish., 50: 645-651.

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